Contraceptive devices are the devices which prevents fertilisation and hence control birth rate. These also prevents unwanted pregnancy.
Broadly contraceptive methods are classifieds into two types:
TEMPORARY METHODS: These methods are used to control fertilisation for a short interval of time. Temporary methods are further classified into four.
1. Natural method. These are the method in which no artificial devices are used instead hormones and natural biological process are used to prevent fertilisation. Some of the natural methods of contraception are:
Periodic Abstinence method. A week before and after the menses is considered as safe period. Intercourse during this period is safe for couples to avoid unwanted pregnancy. From day 10 to 17 couples abstain from coitus to prevent conception.
Withdrawal method. In these method penis is withdrawn before ejaculation of semen so as to avoid deposition of semen into vagina (insemination).
Lactational Amenorrhoea. It means absence of menstruation during lactation period. After delivery (parturition) of baby upto 6 – 8 months (period of intense lactation), ovulation do not occurs. So, there is no chance of fertilisation.
2. Barrier/ Mechanical method. In these method ovum and sperms are prevented to meet from each other by use of barrier. Some of the barriers are:
Condom. It is made up of thin rubber/ latex sheath and are used to cover penis in men and cervix/ vagina in women.
It prevents not only conception but also prevents transmission of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and AIDS.
Diaphragms. It is made up of rubber and covers the cervix of female partner to avoid fertilisation.
Cervical caps and Vaults. These are also made up of rubber and covers the cervix of female partner to block the entry of sperms into cervix.
3. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs). IUDs are inserted into the uterus through vagina to prevent conception. IUDs are used under the medical supervision only. These are inserted into the uterus by doctors and trained nurses only.IUDs increases the phagocytosis of sperms and also makes uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to the sperms. Some of the IUDs are Lippes loop, Copper – T, Multiload 375, implants.
4. Pills. Oral pills are the doses of progestogen or combination of progestogen – estrogen. It inhibits the ovulation and implantation. It also alters the nature of cervical mucous to retard entry of sperm. Oral pills should be taken under the gynaecologist supervision only.
Pills are found to be very effective emergency contraceptive. This has to be taken within 72 hours of the unprotected coitus, sexual harassment to avoid the possibility of pregnancy.
Examples: Saheli, Mala – D, Mala – N etc.,
Permanent Method. It is a surgical method known as laproscopic sterilisation. It is used to prevent the fertilisation permanently.
1. Vasectomy. In this method vas deferens is either removed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum. This is performed in male partner.
2. Tubectomy. In this method fallopian tubes are either removed or tied up through a small incision on the abdomen.
Question 1: Name three copper releasing IUDs.
Answer: Copper – T(CuT) , Multiload 375, Copper – 7 (Cu7).
Question 2: What do you mean by periodic abstinence method?
Answer: Periodic abstinence method is one of the contraceptive method in which couples abstain from intercourse from day 10 – 17 of the menstruation when ovulation could be expected.