Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arises from single parent without fusion of gametes. This method is mainly adapted by single celled organisms and plants. Offsprings produced by this method are identical to each other and to its parent. Morphologically and genetically identical individuals are termed as clones.
Type of asexual reproduction in single – celled organisms
Binary Fission: Parent cell (protists and monerans) divides into two equal halves to give rise to new individuals. In these organisms cell division is itself a mode of reproduction. E.g Amoeba, paramecium.
Budding: Parent cell divides into two unequal halves and small half eventually gets separated and mature into offspring. E.g yeast.
Some organisms belonging to kingdom Fungi and some plants reproduce with the help of special asexual reproductive structures. E.g. zoospores (motile structures), conidia in Penicillium, buds in Hydra, gemmules in Sponge etc.
Among plants asexual production is known as vegetative propagation. Some of the vegetative propagules are runner, rhizome, sucker, tuber, offset, bulb.
Vegetative propagules are the structures of plant which are capable to give rise to new offspring.
1. Why does ‘water hyacinth’ known as the ‘terror of Bengal’?
Answer: Water hyacinth is known as terror of Bengal because it drains oxygen from the water leading to the death of fishes. Its vegetative propagation rate is very high and it spread all over the water body in very short interval of time.
2. How does Bryophyllum reproduce?
Answer: Bryophyllum reproduces through the buds which arises from the notches present at margins of leaves.
3. How does ‘terror of Bengal’ is introduced in India?
Answer: It is introduced in India because of its beautiful flowers and shapes of leaves.